Cultivation techniques of carnation in plastic gre

2022-09-21
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Carnation plastic greenhouse cultivation technology

carnation Plastic Greenhouse Cultivation Technology Wang Xiumei (Jigang greening company, Jinan, 250100) carnation, also known as carnation, is one of the commonly used cut flowers. Because of its large flowers, colorful colors and long flowering period, it is favored by the majority of consumers. Carnation is a cumulative long sunshine plant with weak cold resistance. It likes a mild winter and cool summer environment, and avoids high temperature and humidity. In order to ensure the normal production of carnation, we use greenhouses for cultivation. Now the cultivation techniques are summarized as follows. 1. The seedbed should be prepared in a place with high terrain, dry after 3 months, leeward and sunny, convenient drainage and irrigation, and easy to manage. Build a groove with a width of 100~120cm and a depth of 20cm, and the length depends on the needs. Level the bottom, install electric heating wires, and then lay 12~15cm thick slag or the mixed matrix of slag and perlite (1:1). Before cutting, use 0.1% which means that nearly 1/3 of waste plastic enters the ecological environment for disinfection with KMnO4 solution, 3% carbofuran granules or 50% phoxim 1000 ~ 1500 times solution. The seedbed is equipped with automatic spray device and thermal insulation facilities. 2 cutting method: take strong, healthy and disease-free lateral buds from the cutting mother plant as cuttings, break off 1~2 pairs of leaves at the base of cuttings, leave 3~4 pairs at the top, dip the base in rooting powder, and insert it into the matrix. When cutting, first make a hole in the substrate with a bamboo stick equivalent to the thickness of the cuttings, and then insert the cuttings vertically. The cutting depth is 1.5~2cm, and the spacing between plants is 3cm2. Spray enough water immediately after cutting, and pay attention to moisturizing later. Generally, it starts to take root in two weeks, and the root system grows to about 2cm in 18~20 days. 3. Planting 3.1 selection and preparation of soil. The soil should be slightly acidic clayey loam with strong drainage, aeration and fertilizer retention. If it does not meet the requirements, it should be completely replaced or added with slag, organic fertilizer, etc. for soil improvement. Apply enough base fertilizer, level the ground, and build a high border of 90~100cm wide and 25~30cm deep for standby. Two weeks before planting, disinfect the soil with 6% formalin solution or dixone 600~800 times solution. 3.2 the planting time is generally appropriate according to the market demand for flowers. According to the friction pair, it can be divided into ball disc friction and wear testing machine for adjustment. If flowers are supplied on national day, it needs to be planted in the first ten days of May; If flowers are supplied on New Year's day and Spring Festival, they will be planted in the first and middle of June. 3.3 the planting density is 20cm, and the number of plants in a standard greenhouse (6~30m) is generally 3300~4000. The planting density of different varieties is different. The red varieties with strong branching can be thinly planted, and the Yellow varieties with weak branching can be slightly dense. 3.4 planting method: first wash the perlite from the root of the seedlings and treat with Carbendazim and KH2PO4 solution. The planting depth should be shallow but not inverted. The planting hole should be a little larger to make the root system stretch out. Press it gently after planting, and then pour the planting water thoroughly after planting. From May to September, Dianthus caryophyllus should be covered with 50% sun shading and moisturizing. 4 management after planting 4.1 water and fertilizer management. During the slow seedling period, often spray to maintain air humidity, and then water the soil until it turns white. After delaying seedlings, pay attention to water control, and carry out "squatting seedlings" for 2-3 times to promote new roots. It is not easy to water too much in summer to prevent the occurrence of stem rot. In autumn, the plants enter the vigorous growth period, which can increase the amount of watering. In winter, due to the large temperature difference between day and night, watering should be controlled, otherwise, calyx cracking is easy to occur. Carnation should be watered by drip irrigation rather than by watering above the plant, so as to prevent long-term water accumulation on the leaves and induce leaf spot disease. In addition, if the water quality is hard and it is easy to cause soil alkalization after long-term use, sulfur or fes4 can be appropriately added to the water to change the water quality. Fertilization is mainly organic fertilizer, supplemented by inorganic fertilizer. On the premise of sufficient base fertilizer, top dressing should be applied lightly and frequently. Water the retting liquid of sesame paste residue and soybean cake once a half month, spray the mixture of 0.05% - 0.1% urea and 0.1% - 0.2% KH2PO4, or water or spray 0.2% - 0.3% KN3 aqueous solution once a week. N fertilizer is mainly used in seedling stage, and P and K fertilizer is mainly used in flowering stage, but pay attention to the application amount of P fertilizer, too much is prone to calyx cracking. 4.2 temperature control carnation growth and development to adapt to the temperature 18 slow seedling stage, covered with 50% shade and heat preservation, combined with spray if possible. High temperature in summer, 30% shading is also required during the growth period to block out the strong light at noon and reduce the temperature in the shed. At the same time, remove the horizontal window inlet and outlet for ventilation. Heating facilities should be provided in winter, and double-layer films should be covered or a middle shed should be covered in the greenhouse for heat preservation, so as to create a good temperature suitable for the growth and development of carnation as far as possible. 4.3 light regulation carnation is a cumulative long sunshine plant. Long light is conducive to the growth and development of carnation. In winter, the sunshine time is short, so it needs to be treated with auxiliary light. Carnation is a high light intensity plant, and the shading in summer can only be mild. At the same time, the film with high light transmittance should be correctly selected, and the film should be often dedusted to improve the light transmittance. 4.4 pluck and prune. According to the target flowering period, the new apricot variety Pingyuan Yuxing is often used in production. Yangxiuqing Bing Guirong Yu Qiuxiang liguixiang Cui Liangtian 2 (1. Dezhou Forestry Bureau 253016; wangdagua Township, Pingyuan county) Pingyuan Yuxing is a villager of daijiakou village. In 1986, it moved into the home from the seedling of apricot found beside the Apricot Garden outside the village. It began to bear fruit in 1990. In 1991, it formed a yield of 100 Jin per plant, and in 1994, it produced 100kg per plant, The apricot is characterized by early maturity, large size, high yield and high quality. The villagers breed it spontaneously and expand it year by year. It has now formed a certain scale. 1. Botanical characters: moderate tree potential, open tree posture, weak dryness, natural round head shape; The young tree shoots grow vigorously and are stout; The back of the new shoot is bright red, bright and thick, oval shaped, with wide and blunt serrations on the leaf margin, narrow and blunt leaf tips, shallow handle depressions, thick green leaves, stretching, slightly bent towards the leaf surface, 10.3cm long and 7 4cm; The young leaves are slightly reddish, and the petiole is 4 3 nectaries, conical flower buds, triangular leaf buds, many single flower buds, few compound flower buds, few and sparse flowers, large petals, pink. 2 growth and Fruiting Habits young trees have large new shoot growth, low germination rate, strong branching ability, easy flowering, more single flower buds, single fruit bearing, and the proportion of long, medium, and short fruit branches is 2.3%, 17.2%, 80.5%, mainly medium and short fruit branches, with less and sparse flowers and high fruit bearing rate. 3. Economic characters of fruit: the fruit is long, round, peach shaped, and the average single fruit weight is 71 That is to say, it can resist rolling and wind. 9g fruit surface is clean and bright, and the background color is yellow and white; When mature, the sun is bright red, the white inside is red, and the appearance is gorgeous and attractive. The fruit top is slightly concave, with small tips, deep suture, symmetrical two halves, and short fruit stalk. The peel is thick, less hairy and easy to peel. The flesh is orange yellow, dense, fine and crisp, with less fiber and more juice. It contains 14% soluble solids, 10.75% total sugar, 1.4% titratable acid. It tastes sweet, slightly sour, fragrant, small stone, denuded, resistant to storage and transportation, suitable for raw food and processing. After storage, it tastes sweet * *. 4. High yield the apricot is easy to flower, early to bear fruit and good in high yield. The young trees showed fruit in the second year after grafting, and the plant yield was 3~6kg in the third year. The plant yield reached 200kg in the fifth year Pick the heart twice or half a time to ensure that each plant has 5 ~ 6 strong lateral buds, and the rest of the lateral buds are removed. For the reserved lateral branches, the lateral buds or buds growing on them should be wiped out in time, so that nutrients can be supplied to the main buds. Timely cut off pest branches and weak branches. 4.5 the first layer of nylon is stretched at a height of ~10cm, and then it grows with the plant. A layer of nylon is stretched every 20~25cm, a total of four layers, and the branches are gathered into the cell at any time to prevent the plant from lodging. You can also install adjustable layers 2, 3 and 4 while pulling the * * layer, and pull up other layers in sequence as the plant grows tall. 4.6 pest control the main diseases of carnation include leaf spot, stem rot, Fusarium Wilt and viral diseases. Leaf spot disease, stem rot and Fusarium wilt are fungal diseases. The preventive measures are not to hurt the stems during transplanting, and should be deeply planted. The diseased plants should be uprooted and destroyed in time. Drip irrigation should be used for watering, and do not spray water from above the plants. Drug control: 70% tolbuzine methyl, 75% chlorothalonil, 50% carbendazim, 65% zineb 500-800 times solution can be sprayed alternately, and the root can be irrigated with Bordeaux 500-800 times solution, which has a better effect on the control of Fusarium wilt. Generally, viral diseases cannot be prevented and controlled by chemical agents. Sterile virus-free seedlings are often used for cultivation, strict cultivation and management, and timely control of aphids, red spiders and other viral vectors. Carnation pests mainly include aphids, red spiders, night moths, etc. It can be sprayed with 40% Omethoate 1000~1500 times, 20% dicofol 1000 times, 2.5% deltamethrin 2000~2500 times. It can also be controlled with drugs such as methomyl, sweep mite, Cypermethrin, and pay attention to the alternative use of drugs, especially in the period of a large number of Spodoptera larvae, combined with artificial capture, the control effect is better. 5 harvesting and treatment of cut flowers 5.1 harvesting ~1/2 petals are better if they have not been loosened. Cut them from the base at 3~4 nodes, remove the lower leaves, classify them according to color, classify them according to quality, and bind them every 20. 5.2 preservation and storage: the bound carnation will be renewed and cut, and then immediately inserted into 1mmol/lsts or other preservatives for treatment 0 For 5~1 hours, wrap it with film and store it under the environmental conditions of 0~3 ° C and 90% - 95% relative humidity

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